This essay is not based on a certain hypothesis but instead researches a topic and attempts to put a complex issue into more simple language. The essay is broken down into four parts: background on Charles de Gaulle, background on Europe, details of the Fouchet Plan, and the impact of the Fouchet Plan. The first section elaborates on de Gaulle’s political history (pre-1958) and how he developed certain views. The second then moves back in time to the French novelist Victor Hugo, who was the first person to coin the term “États-Unis d’Europe” (United States of Europe). Furthermore, the essay briefly outlines the formation of the European Economic Community here. The main body of the essay examines the return of de Gaulle to French politics in 1958 and explains why he believed that Europe should have an intergovernmental union, rather than the supranational union that was present in the form of the EEC. Note there is a paragraph which summarises the Fouchet Plan and explains why de Gaulle believed that change was necessary for Europe. The concluding paragraphs look more closely at the European response to de Gaulle’s proposals, explaining why the Fouchet Plan was ultimately rejected, as well as de Gaulle’s European impact after the plan was rejected. The information presented in the essay is not as detailed as if written it in English, but nonetheless, it does make a very complicated issue much more understandable (for those that can read French).
Contributed by Harry Eaton